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Croy Index: Vocabulary - Prosody - Verbs - Nouns - Adjectives - Nominals - Other Topics - Syntax List

First Declension: Feminine

Singular endings. There are variations in the singular endings of this declension. Some nouns take all alphas in the singular, some take all etas, and a few are mixed. As Croy explains, a first declension noun that has a nominative singular ending in alpha can be either all-alpha, or mixed alpha-eta. If there is a vowel or the letter rho preceding that final alpha, then the noun belongs to the all-alpha declension: βασιλεία, ἐκκλησία, καρδία, ἀλήθεια. If some other letter precedes the alpha, then the noun is mixed alpha-eta: δόξα, θάλασσα.

Plural endings. The plural endings are the same for all three subgroups.

Make sure you practice the paradigms! Also, please read the notes about stress patterns below.

  Alpha Singular
Eta Singular Mixed Alpha-Eta Plural
Nominative -αι
Genitive -ας -ης -ης -ῶν
Dative -ᾳ -ῃ -ῃ -αις
Accusative -αν -ην -αν -ας
same as nominative

Stress Patterns

Because some first declension endings are short monosyllables and some are long monosyllables, you have to pay careful attention to the stress pattern for the different forms. Croy does not give you all the information you need to follow the stress patterns, so two words have been added to help you see the different stress patterns:σκιά is an example of an alpha-noun with ultimate stress, and κώμη is an eta noun with penultimate stress. Want some more words to practice with? Take a look at this chart of First Declension Feminine Nouns in Croy to see the vocabulary from the textbook arranged according to this scheme.

  Ultimate Stress Dictionary Form
Penultimate Stress Dictionary Form
Antepenultimate Stress Dictionary Form
  • σκιά, σκιάς (shadow)
  • καρδία, καρδίας
  • ἀλήθεια, ἀληθείας
  • φωνή, φωνής
  • κώμη, κώμης (village)

(word ending in eta cannot have antepenultimate stress)

Mixed Alpha-Eta

(no examples)

  • δόξα, δόξης
  • θάλασσα, θαλάσσης

Stress shifts. Remember: the stress shifts because some of the endings are long vowels and some are short. If an ending changes from short to long, the word cannot have antepenultimate stress, so this means the stress will shift! That means you need to pay special attention to the nouns in the antepenultimate stress column, because their stress pattern shifts when a long ending is added to the word.

Nominative plural: short diphthong! The nominative plural ending is regarded as short, even though it is a diphthong.

Genitive plural circumflex. Note also the circumflex over the omega in the genitive plural ending. The omega of this ending is stressed for every noun in this declension, regardless of where the stress falls in the other forms of the noun.

Traditional Order: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative - Singular, Plural

This is the traditional way to study noun paradigms - but check below for the transformation patterns, which are a much more effective way to learn the paradigms.

Nom. Sg. Gen. Sg. Dat. Sg. Acc. Sg.   Nom. Pl. Gen. Pl. Dat. Pl. Acc. Pl.
σκιά σκιάς σκιᾷ


σκιάι σκιῶν σκιαῖς


καρδία καρδίας καρδίᾳ καρδίαν καρδίαι καρδιῶν καρδίαις καρδίας
ἀλήθεια ἀληθείας ἀληθείᾳ ἀλήθειαν ἀλήθειαι ἀληθειῶν ἀληθείαις ἀληθείας
φωνή φωνής φωνῇ φωνήν φωναί φωνῶν φωναῖς φωνάς
κώμη κώμης κώμῃ κώμην κώμαι κωμῶν κώμαις κώμας
δόξα δόξης







θάλασσα θαλάσσης θαλάσσῃ θάλασσαν θάλασσαι θαλασσῶν θαλάσσαις θαλάσσας

Transformations. The best way to study a paradigm is in terms of pairs, so that you can see the forms of the Greek words in relation to the other forms. Use these recordings to listen until you can clearly hear the pattern. Then recite together with the recording, so that you can practice pronouncing the words. Then, see if you can fill in the chart provided for both the singular and plural forms.

Singular to Plural Transformations

Nom. Sg. Nom. Pl.   Gen. Sg. Gen. Pl.   Dat. Sg. Dat. Pl.   Acc. Sg. Acc. Pl.
σκιά σκιάι σκιάς σκιῶν σκιᾷ σκιαῖς



καρδία καρδίαι καρδίας καρδιῶν καρδίᾳ καρδίαις καρδίαν καρδίας
ἀλήθεια ἀλήθειαι ἀληθείας ἀληθειῶν ἀληθείᾳ ἀληθείαις ἀλήθειαν ἀληθείας
φωνή φωναί φωνής φωνῶν φωνῇ φωναῖς φωνήν φωνάς
κώμη κώμαι κώμης κωμῶν κώμῃ κώμαις κώμην κώμας



δόξης δοξῶν δόξῃ δόξαις δόξαν δόξας
θάλασσα θάλασσαι θαλάσσης θαλασσῶν θαλάσσῃ θαλάσσαις θάλασσαν θαλάσσας

Nominative-Accusative, Genitive-Dative

Nom. Sg. Acc. Sg.   Nom. Pl. Acc. Pl.   Gen. Sg. Dat. Sg.   Gen. Pl. Dat. Pl.




σκιάς σκιᾷ σκιῶν σκιαῖς
καρδία καρδίαν καρδίαι καρδίας καρδίας καρδίᾳ καρδιῶν καρδίαις
ἀλήθεια ἀλήθειαν ἀλήθειαι ἀληθείας ἀληθείας ἀληθείᾳ ἀληθειῶν ἀληθείαις
φωνή φωνήν φωναί φωνάς φωνής φωνῇ φωνῶν φωναῖς
κώμη κώμην κώμαι κώμας κώμης κώμῃ κωμῶν κώμαις
δόξα δόξαν δόξαι δόξας δόξης δόξῃ δοξῶν δόξαις
θάλασσα θάλασσαν θάλασσαι θαλάσσας θαλάσσης θαλάσσῃ θαλασσῶν θαλάσσαις

Biblical Greek Online. Laura Gibbs, Ph.D. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. You must give the original author credit. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. Page last updated: April 9, 2005 8:06 PM

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